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Regulation must focus on the regional impacts of air pollution

Current environmental regulations focus on the mass of pollutant particles, however, researchers from the University of Illinois are calling for regulation to focus more on the regional and health-relevant factors. 

The study found that measuring the mass concentrations of PM2.5 that are 2.5 micrometers in diameter or smaller – does not correspond well with current methods for classifying particle toxicity. 

Additionally, the researchers found that PM2.5 exposure may be just as hazardous in rural areas as in urban areas – this challenges a common misconception that air pollution is more toxic in urban areas than in rural areas.

To examine the influence of oxidative potential more closely, the researchers collected PM2.5 samples weekly in the summer and autumn of 2018 and in the winter and spring of 2019. They chose three urban localities: Chicago, Indianapolis, and St. Louis; a rural location in Bondville, Illinois; and a roadside location adjacent to an interstate highway in Champaign, Illinois.

Using an automated analytical technique developed in a previous study, the team analysed the sample composition, oxidative potential, and mass. They found that all locations shared similar levels of oxidative potential – but saw a poor correlation between oxidative potential and mass. That suggests that some of the lighter particles that make up PM2.5 contribute more to tissue damage than others.

The lead author of the study, Professor Vishal Verma said: ‘The EPA classification of PM2.5 accounts for particle diameter and mass, which are characteristics that are easy to measure. However, not all particles that make up PM2.5 contribute to health equally.

‘Most air pollution studies have shifted focus from particle mass to a property called cellular oxidative potential. Cellular oxidative potential describes the capability of the particles to generate reactive, oxygen-based chemicals that can lead to a variety of health problems in the cells of lung tissue.”

‘Our rural samples did have less mass than those in the urban settings, but the oxidative potential was equal to samples from urban settings. Additionally, the oxidative potential of the rural samples was higher in the summer than in the winter, suggesting that summertime agricultural activity can produce PM2.5 particles that are just as toxic as those from urban settings.’

The team hopes this study brings attention to these newly uncovered risks associated with PM2.5 in rural areas.

 

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fayor95402
fayor95402
2 years ago

Mitochondrial oxidative DNA damage & exposure to particulate air pollution in mother-newborn pairs. Env Health 15 10, Grevendonk 2016.
Sources of particulate matter air pollution & its oxidative potential in Europe. Nature, 587 7834 414-419, Dallenbach 2020.
Air pollution, oxidative stress & exacerbation of autoimmune diseases. ent Eur J Immunol 3 305–312, Gwada 2016.
Air particulate matter induced oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease & atherosclerosis.Toxicol Lett 270 88-95, Lawal 2017.
Association between short-term exposure to ambient particulate air pollution & biomarkers of oxidative stress. Environ Res 191110105, Li 2020.
Oxidative stress & cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 151 69-87, Miller 2020.
Oxidative stress in air pollution research. Free Radic Biol Med 151 2-6, Mudway 2020.
Toxicological mechanisms of environmental soot (black carbon): Focus on oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways. Frontiers in Immunology 8 763, Niranjan 2020.
Composition & oxidative potential of PM2.5 pollution & health. Journal of Thoracic Disease 9 3 444–447, Robinson 2017.
Involvement of oxidative stress & mitochondrial mechanisms in air pollution-related neurobiological impairments. Neurobiol Stress 100205, Salvi 2020.
Oxidative potential of ambient fine particulate matter for ranking of emission sources: an insight for emission reduction. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, Shivani, 2021.
Long-term exposure to particulate matter, NO2, and the oxidative potential of particulates & diabetes prevalence in a large national health survey. Environ Int 108 228–236, Strak 2017.
Association of Sulfur, Transition Metals, & the Oxidative Potential of Outdoor PM 2.5 with Acute Cardiovascular Events: AEnviron Health Perspect 12910 107005, Weichenthal 2021.
Children’s respiratory health & oxidative potential of PM2.5: the PIAMA birth cohort study. Occup Environ Med 73 154–160, Yang 2016..

chris
chris
2 years ago

Mitochondrial oxidative DNA damage & exposure to particulate air pollution in mother-newborn pairs. Env Health 15 10, Grevendonk 2016.
Sources of particulate matter air pollution & its oxidative potential in Europe. Nature, 587 7834 414-419, Dallenbach 2020.
Air pollution, oxidative stress & exacerbation of autoimmune diseases. ent Eur J Immunol 3 305–312, Gwada 2016.
Air particulate matter induced oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease & atherosclerosis.Toxicol Lett 270 88-95, Lawal 2017.
Association between short-term exposure to ambient particulate air pollution & biomarkers of oxidative stress. Environ Res 191110105, Li 2020.
Oxidative stress & cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 151 69-87, Miller 2020.
Oxidative stress in air pollution research. Free Radic Biol Med 151 2-6, Mudway 2020.
Toxicological mechanisms of environmental soot (black carbon): Focus on oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways. Frontiers in Immunology 8 763, Niranjan 2020.
Composition & oxidative potential of PM2.5 pollution & health. Journal of Thoracic Disease 9 3 444–447, Robinson 2017.
Involvement of oxidative stress & mitochondrial mechanisms in air pollution-related neurobiological impairments. Neurobiol Stress 100205, Salvi 2020.
Oxidative potential of ambient fine particulate matter for ranking of emission sources: an insight for emission reduction. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, Shivani, 2021.
Long-term exposure to particulate matter, NO2, and the oxidative potential of particulates & diabetes prevalence in a large national health survey. Environ Int 108 228–236, Strak 2017.
Association of Sulfur, Transition Metals, & the Oxidative Potential of Outdoor PM 2.5 with Acute Cardiovascular Events: AEnviron Health Perspect 12910 107005, Weichenthal 2021.
Children’s respiratory health & oxidative potential of PM2.5: the PIAMA birth cohort study. Occup Environ Med 73 154–160, Yang 2016..

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